Ағылшын тілі грамматикасы сызба кестелерде

Ағылшын тілі грамматикасы сызба кестелерде

Sequence of tenses (Шақтардың қиысуы)

1Present IndefinitePast Indefinite
2Present ContinuousPast Continuous
3Present PerfectPast Perfect
4Past IndefinitePast Perfect
5Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous
6Past PerfectPast Perfect
7Future IndefiniteFuture — in the Past

 

Direct SpeechIndirect SpeechDirect SpeechIndirect Speech
nowthennext weekthe next week


the following week

todaythat daylast weekthe previous week
tomorrowthe next day

the following day

last yearthe year before
the day after tomorrowtwo days laterherethere
yesterdaythe day before

the previous day

thisthat
the day before yesterdaytwo days beforethesethose
agobefore

 

Conditional sentences

 

StructureExampleExpresses
Real 


Fut.Sim.+ if +Pr.Sim

 

If+Pr.Sim + Fut.Sim.

 

I’ll go to the cinema,

if I am not busy

If I am not busy,

I’ll go to the cinema

Real situation and its result
Unreal 

Fut-in the P.+if+Past Sim.

 

If+Past Sim. +Fut-in the P.

 

I would travel all over the world, if I had much money

 

Unreal situation and its result

 

12

Rules of reading

 

VowelsI type

(open)

II type

(closed)

III type

(V+r)

IV type

(V+r+V)

Aa [ei][ei] plate[æ] bag[a:] car[εә] hare
Oo [ou][ou] pose[o] box[o:] fork[o:] more
Ee [i:][i:] tree[e] ten[ә:] her[iә] here
Ii [ai][ai] nine[I] six[ә:] girl[aiә] fire
Yy [ai][ai] my[I] gym[ә:] byrd[іә] tyre
Uu [ju:][ju:] pupil[^] bus[ә:] turn[juә] pure

 

Spainai[ei]oo+k[u]Book
Dayayoo[u:]Foot
Augustau[o:]ow[au]Out
LawawouBrown
Seaea[i:]ow[ou]Window
Meeteeoa[ou]Oak
Newew[ju:]ai+r[εә]Chair
Neutraleuee+r[iә]Engineer
Theyey[ei]ou+r[auә]Our
Pointoi[oi]oo+r[o:]Door
Boyoy

 

 

Cc[s] before e,i,yCity, pencil, cycleTh[θ]Thick, thin
[k]Cat, come[∂]This, than
Gg[dз]Gin, gentle, gymwh[h]

before o

Who
[g]Garden, bag[w]When, why
ch[t∫]Chairwr[r]Write
tchMatch— ssion 

[∫n]

Mission
sh[∫]She— tionDictation
qu[kw]Quick— sion[зn]Revision
ng[ŋ]Long— ture[∫ә]Picture
nk[ŋk]Thank

 

1

The Noun

1Proper nouns (жалқы)Peter, Smith, Teddy, Moscow, the Volga, “New Times”
Common nouns (жалпы)Boy, snow, dog, school, friendship
2Concrete nouns (деректi)Mary, cat, table, butter, book
Abstract nouns (дерексiз)Love, idea, cold, meeting, summer
3Animate nouns (жанды)Jane, cat, girl, horse
Inanimate nouns (жансыз)River, table, iron

 

Number

SingularPlural
1— sBook

Boy

Books

Boys

2— esBus

Bush

Speech

Match

Box

Buses

Bushes

Speeches

Matches

Boxes

3— esPotato

Tomato

Potatoes

Tomatoes

4— sPhoto

Piano

Zero

Rhino

Photos

Pianos

Zeros

Rhinos

5y → iArmy

Strawberry

Armies

Strawberries

6f → vLeaf

Knife

Leaves

Knives

7Man

Woman

Child

Foot

Tooth

Goose

Mouse

Sheep

Deer

Men

Women

Children

Feet

Teeth

Geese

Mice

Sheep

Deer

2

 

Word order (сөз тәртiбi)

 

1234
Adverbial modifier

Пысықтауыш

Subject

 

Бастауыш

Predicate

 

Баяндауыш

Object

 

Толықтауыш

Adverbial modifier

Пысықтауыш

In summerPeterwrotethem lettersvery often
Анықтауыш (Attribute) өзi анықтайтын сөзден бұрын (предлогсыз) немесе кейiн (предлогпен) келедi

I like your dog.  That dog of yours is very good.

 

 

Сұраулы сөйлем түрлерi

 

ТүрiЖасалуыМысал
 

1

General question

(жалпы)

 

Pr1+Sub.+Pr2?

Does he read English books?
Сan you read English books?
Is he a good people?
 

2

Special question

(арнайы)

 

1

 

Qu.+Pr1+Sub.+Pr2?

Where do you live?
What can you do?
Where is he?
2Qu.+Pr ?

(Бастауышқа немесе оның анықтауышына)

Who is reading a book?
Whose book is lying on the table?
Alternative

question

(балама)

Gq1+ or+Gq2Is it a book or a copybook?
Do you go to the cinema or to the theatre?
4Disjunctive

question

(демеулiктi)

1Af.st,+Pr1+not+Per.Pr?He is reading, isn’t he?
2Neg.st,+Pr1+Per.Pr?He has a book, hasn’t he?
 

Pr1 – 1.көмекшi етiстiк                          Af.st – болымды сөйлем

2.модальды етiстiк                        Neg.st – болымсыз сөйлем

3. байланыстырушы етiстiк            Per.Pr – жiктеу есiмдiгi

11

 

Non-finite forms of the verb

 

Infinitive (to _)

Iс-әрекеттi бiлдiретiн қ етiстiктiң түрi

1Indefinite InfinitiveV1I want to speak to him

I can read this story

2Passive Infinitiveto be+V3Peter is glad to be invited by me
3Perfect Infinitiveto have+V3I am glad to have spoken to him
4Continuous Infinitiveto be+V4It was pleasant to be driving the car again
5Perfect Continuous Infinitiveto have been+V4They seem to have been reading this book for a long time

 

Gerund

Iс-әрекеттi бiлдiретiн жајқсыз етiстiктiң түрi

1Indefinite

Gerund

V1+ingStark sat without speaking
2Perfect Gerundhaving+V3He felt better for having written the letter
3Passive Gerundbeing+V3I like being invited to their house

 

Participle I

Iс-әрекеттi  бiр заттың немесе әрекеттiң сипаты ретiнде көрсететiн жақсыз етiстiктiң түрi

1Indefinite

Participle I

V4The street was full of people, laughing and going home
2Perfect Participle Ihaving+V3Having read the book I gave it to Peter
3Passive Participle Ibeing+V3Cecilia had heard very little being absorbed in her own reflections
4Perfect Passive Participle Ihaving been+V3I am going the same day myself having been detained here two days

 

Participle II

 

1Participle IIV3The boy invited by Peter is a friend of mine

Зат есiмнiң жасалу жолдары

 

I. Префикстер арқылы
1

Dis —

Disbelief5

Sub —

Subway
2Mis —Misbehavior6Re —Recount
3Co —Copilot7Auto —Autobiography
4Counter-Counteraction8Vice —Vice -president

 

 

II. Суффикстер арқылы
Түбiр зат есiмненТүбiр сын есiмнен
1— erLondoner1— nessHappiness
2— essActress2— tyProperty
3— hoodChildhood3— domFreedom
4— shipFriendship 

Түбiр етiстiктен

5— (e)ryChemistry
6— letBooklet1— er(or)Worker, actor
7— etteKitchenette2— ant(ent)Assistant
8— iteMuskovite3— (a)tionOrganization
9— (i)anRussian4— ingBuilding
10— eseChinese5— mentMovement
11— istViolonist6— alRefusal
12-ismHeroism7— eeAddressee

 

 

 

III. Бiрiгу арқылыIV. Конверсия

(сөз табының өзгеруi)

1Зат е.+зат е.Rainbow1to doubtdoubt
2Сын е.+зат е.Blackboard2to lovelove
3Yстеу+зат е.Afternoon
4Етiстiк+зат е.Knitwear1comic(a) comic
5Зат е.+етiстiкHandshake2Rich(the)rich

 

3

Сын есiмнiң жасалуы

 

I. Префикс арқылы
1

Un —

Unfair8

Anti —

Antifascist
2Im —Impossible9Inter —International
3Dis —Dishonest10Post —Post-war
4Super —Supernatural11Uni —Unilateral
5Sub —Subconscious12Bi —Bilingual
6Ultra —Ultra-violet13Multi —Multilateral
7Hyper —Hupercritical14Poly —Polysyllabic

 

II.Суффикс арқылы
Түбiр зат есiмненТүбiр етiстiктен
1— fulUseful1— ableReadable
2— lessHelpless2— ySleepy
3— lyFriendly3— iveAttractive
4— yCreamy
5— ishFoolish
6— alMusical
7— ousDangerous

 

Бiрiгу арқылы
1Зат е.+ прич 1Heart-breaking
2Сын е.+ прич 1Good-looking
3Зат е.+ прич 2Hand-made
4Зат е.+ сын еSea-green

 

Degrees of comparison

 

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
1Бiр буындыstrongstronger(the) strongest
2Кей екi буынды сөзeasy

clever

narrow

easier

cleverer

narrower

(the) easiest

(the) cleverest

(the) narrowest

3Көп буындыinterestingmore interesting(the) most interesting
4Ерекше жағдайgood

bad

little

many (much)

better

worse

less

more

(the) best

(the) worst

(the) least

(the) most

Қолданылуы   As ….as… thanthe …
He is tall

She is as tall as her brother

He is taller than his sisterHe is the tallest in the family

4

Passive –тегi етiстiктiң шақтық формаларын да осылай жасап шығуға болады.

Ескерту: Passive –те Continuous тобында Future\Future – in the Past жоқ. Ал, Perfect Continuous тобы мүлде болмайды

 

Passive Voice  be+V3
Indefinite

( — )

Continuous

(be + V4)

Perfect

(have+V3)

Present

(V1)

be invitedbe being invitedhave   been invited
Past

(V2)

was\were invitedwas\were being invitedhad   been invited
Future

(shall\will+

V1)

shall\will

be invited  

shall\will  have   been invited
Future – in the Past

(should\

would+V1)

should\would

be invited

should\would have   been invited

 

Past    Continuous     Passive

 

 

V2             be + V4            be+V3         бұдан   be2 +be4 +V3

 

Яғни            was\were being invited

 

 

“To be”, “to have” етiстiктерiнiң осы шақта жiктелуi
Pronouns“to be”“to have”
Singular1 personIаmhave
2 personYouаrehave
3 person

 

He

She

It

 

іs

 

has

Plural1 personWeаrehave
2 personYouаrehave
3 person

 

Theyаrehave

 

9

The finite forms of the verb

 

Active Voice
Indefinite

( — )

Continuous

(be + V4)

Perfect

(have+V3)

Perfect Continuous

(have been+V4)

Present

(V1)

invitebe invitinghave invitedhave   been inviting
Past

(V2)

invitedwas\were invitinghad invitedhad   been inviting
Future

(shall\will+

V1)

shall\will

invite

shall\will

be inviting

shall\will

have invited

shall\will   have   been inviting
Future – in the Past

(should\

would+V1)

should\

would

invite

should\

would

be inviting

should\

would

have invited

should\

would

have   been inviting

 

Етiстiктiң шақтық формалары белгiлi бiр қағидаға сүйенiп жасалады.

V1     —    V2      —   V3       —     V4

to invite  — invited – invited – inviting

 

Past      Perfect

 

V2             have+V   бұдан     have2+ V3 ,   яғни    had invited

 

 

 

Future        Perfect       Continuous

shall\will+V1     have+V3               be + V4       бұдан   

 

shall\will   have   been inviting    

         

Ескерту: көмекшi етiстiк алдыңғы етiстiктiң формасына ауысады, ал соңғы етiстiк сөйлемдегi толық мағыналы негiзгi етiстiк

8

The Pronouns

Personal PronounPossessive PronounReflexive Pronoun
Nominative caseObjective caseMain formAbsolute form
Singular1 PerImemyminemyself
2 Peryouyouyouryoursyourself
3 Perhe

she

it

him

her

it

his

her

its

his

hers

its

himself

herself

itself

Plural1 Perwe

 

usouroursourselves
2 Peryou

 

youyouryoursyourselves
3 Perthey

 

themtheirtheirsthemselves
ҚолдануыАтау септiгiндеБасқа септiк-тердеЗат есiмнен
БұрынКейiн
МысалыI wrote him a letter

We met them at the theatre

This is my book

and this  is yours

He washed himself

 

Indefinite and negative pronouns
1Some, somebody, someone, something… used in the affirmative sentencesI have some English books
2Any, anybody, anyone, anything… used in the interrogative and negative (…not) sentencesHave you any English books?

I don’t have any English books

3No, nobody, no one, nothing… used in the negative sentencesI have no English books

 

Demonstrative pronouns
SingularPlural
1ThisThese
2ThatThose
I have this book and you have that oneThese shoes don’t fit. Show me those ones

5

 

The numeral

 

Cardinal

numerals

(есептiк)

 

Ordinal numerals

(реттiк)

1-121-3
1onethe    first
2twothe    second
3threethe    third
4four 

 

— th

жалға-

нады

the  fourth
12twelvethe  twelfth
13-19
13— teen

жалға

нады

thirteenthe thirteenth
14fourteenthe fourteenth
19nineteenthe nineteenth
20, 30,….90 

Y→ie

20— ty

жалға-

нады

twentythe twentieth
30thirtythe thirtieth
90ninetythe ninetieth
21twenty-onethe twenty-first
22twenty-twothe twenty-second
  1. 100 – a hundred 1000 – a thousand

615 – six hundred and fifteen

2006 – two thousand and six

5700 – five thousand , seven hundred

2753000 – two million , seven hundred and fifty three

thousand

  1. 8.56 – eight point fifty-six

 

III. 2\7 – two sevenths

 

  1. In 17 87 — in seventeen eighty-nine

In 19 00 – in  nineteen hundred

Жылды оқығанда екi саннан бөлiп оқиды

6

Етiстiктiң түрлерi

 

ТүрiЕтiстiкМысалҚолданылуы
1Негiзгispeak

take

Mary speaks English

I took the book from the library yesterday

 

Cөйлемдегi негiзгi әрекеттi бiлдiредi
2Көмекшido

 

 

be

have

shall

will

Do you speak English?

He doesn’t speak Russian

I am speaking

She has spoken

I shall go there

He will have asked

Болымсыз сөйлем

сұраулы сөйлем,

шақтық формаларды жасауға көмектеседi

3Байланыс-тырушыbePeter is a good people
4Модальдыcan\could

may\might

 

 

 

must

 

should

ought to

She can read

May I open the window?

He may come back tomorrow

You must come to school on time

You should (ought to) be more polite to him

You should (ought to) have tidied up your room

Мүмкiндiк

Рұқсат

 

Болжам

 

Мiндет

 

Ақыл-кеңес

 

Ескерту

 

бiлдiредi

 

Етiстiктiң формалары

 

Infinitive

V1

Past Indefinite

V2

Participle II

V3

Participle I

V4

Regular

(дұрыс)

— ed жалғанады-ing жалғанады
(to) askask-edask-edask-ing
(to) answeranswer-edanswer-edanswer-ing
Irregular

(бұрыс)

арнайы кестеде берiледi-ing жалғанады
(to) bewas\werebeenbe-ing
(to) writewrotewrittenwrit-ing
(to) speakspokespokenspeak-ing
(to) readreadreadread-ing

7