Грамматикалық анықтама

65

Инглиз  алфавити

The English letters

Һәрипләр транскрипция оқулуши
1 Aa [ei] (ей)
2 Bb [bi:] (би)
3 Cc [si:] (си)
4 Dd [di:] (ди)
5 Ee [i:] (и-и)
6 Ff [ef] (эф)
7 Gg [ʤi:] (җи)
8 Hh [eiʧ] (эйч)
9 Ii [ai] (ай)
10 Jj [ʤei] (җей)
11 Kk [kei] (кей)
12 Ll [el] (эл)
13 Mm [em] (эм)
14 Nn [en] (эн)
15 Oo [‘əu] (оу)
16 Pp [pi:] (пи)
17 Qq [kju:] (кью)
18 Rr [ɑ:] (аа)
19 Ss [es] (эс)
20 Tt [ti:] (ти)
21 Uu [ju:] (ю)
22 Vv [vi:] (ви)
23 Ww [dʌblju:] (дабл ю)
24 Xx [eks] (экс)
25 Yy [wai] (уай)
26 Zz [zed] (зед)

 

Инглиз тилида 26 һәрип бар. Уларниң  6 созуқ тавушлар (vowels) A [ei:], E [i:], I [ai], O [‘ou], U [ju:], Y [wai].

20 үзүк тавушлар (consonants)

3

 

 үзүк  тавушларниң оқулуши вә уларниң сирлири

һәрипләр                                Аһаңлар    Уйғур тилида мисал Һәрипләрниң қошулуп оқулиши
Bb [b] (б) m  һрипидин кейин оулмайду

comb [koum]

Cc a, o, u. алдида [k] болуп оқилиду.

e, i, y. алдида [s] болуп оқилиду.

(к)

(с)

1.      Ch-[ʧ]       (ч)

2.      К һәрипиниң алдида окулмайду   nick [nik]

Dd [d] (д)
Ff [f] (ф)
Gg a, o, u. алдида [g] болуп оқилиду.

e, i, y.алдида [ʤ] болуп оқилиду.

(г)

(җ)

       -get, girl, give       [g]    (г)

-Gorg       [ʤ]   (җ)

Hh [h] (һ) Ch-[ʧ](ч), sh-[ʃ] (ш), ph-[f] (ф),

th- [ ð] (з)  яки [θ] (с)

Jj [ʤ] (җ)
 Kk [k] (к) Nn  һәрипиниң  алдида оқулмайду knee [ni:]
Ll [i] (л)
Mm [m] (м)
Nn [n] (н)
Pp [p] (п) ph-[f]     (ф)     phone
Qq [kw] (кв\у)
Rr [r] (р)
Ss [s], [z] (с)яки(з) Sh-  [ʃ]       (ш)
Tt [t] (т) th- [ ð] (з)  яки [θ] (с)
Vv [v] (в)
Ww [w] (в\у)
Xx [ks] (кс)  Бәзидә  [gz]   (гз)
Zz [z] (з)

 

                                                            4

                               созуқ тавушларниң оқулуши

vowels І. Очуқ боғум

(“е” ахирида оқулмайду)

II. йепиқ боғум (үзүк тавуш билән аяқлишидиған һәрипләр) ІІІ. Созуқ тавуш +r
Aa [ei]    cake [æ]   map [ɑ:] car
Oo [‘əu] sofa [o]     box [ɔ:] fork
Ee [i:]    tree [e]     pen [ə:] her
Uu [Ju:] tube [ʌ]      bus [ə:] turn
Ii\ Yy [ai]\ [wai]  kite\ fly [i]     pig, system [ə:] girl

 

Алмашлар

Pronouns

Шәхслик  алмашлар Шәхслик  алмашларниң  түрлиниши
 Бирлик түри Көплүк түри Бирлик түри Көплүк түри
I. I- мән We-биз Me-маңа Us- бизгә
II. You- сән You-силәр You-саңа You -силәргә
III.

 

 

 

He

She        у

It           нәрсиләрни

М:  it is a cat.

They-улар Him

униңға

Her

Them -уларға

 

                 5                       

 

Кишилик  алмашлар кишилик алмашларниң түрлири
Бирлик түри Көплүк түри Бирлик түри Көплүк түри
І. My-мениң Our-бизниң Mine-мениң Ours-бизниң
ІІ. Your-сениң Your-силәрниң Yours-сениң Yours-силәрниң
ІІІ. His

Her        униң

Its

Their-уларниң His

униң

Hers

Theirs-уларниң

 

 

Өзлүк алмашлар Умумий алмашлар
Бирлик түри Көплик түри Everybody-һәммиси

Everyone-һәр  бири

Everything-Һәммиңлар

Everytime-һәр қачан, һәр вақитта

Everywhere-һәммә йәрдә

1.Myself-мән өзәм

 

2.Yourself-сән өзәң

 

3.Himself

у өзи

Herself

1.Ourselves- биз өзимиз

 

2.Yourselves-силәр өзәңлар

 

3.Themselves-улар өзлири

 

 

6

 

Көрситиш алмашлар

Demonstrative

Бирлик түри Көплик түри
Йенида турған нәрсини  көрсәткәндә  This-Мону

 

 

These-монулар
Жирақта турған нәрсини көрсәткәндә That-әву

 

Those-әвулар

This

 

These

 

 

That

 

Those

 

 

7

Бәлгүсиз(indefinite) вә болумсиз(negative) алмашлар.

Алмашлар (some, any, every.) вә уларниң ясилиши

 

Түрлири Бәлгүсиз алмаш Ясилиши        (body\ one-тән)
Хәвәр Some- қандақла  болмисун

Any- кимла  болса

 

Someone\somebody-кимла  болмисун

Anyone\anybody-кимла  болса

There is someone\somebody in the garden.

Бағда бири бар.

Соал Any- кимла  болса

 

Anyone\anybody- кимла  болмисун

There isn’t anyone\anybody in the garden

Бағда һечким йоқ.

Is there anyone\anybody in the garden?

Бағда бири барму?

Болумсиз No\not any-Һеч  қандақ No one\not

No one| nobody| not anyboу һеч  ким

There is no one| nobody in the garden.

Бағда һеч ким йоқ.

 

Жүмлиниң  һәр хил  түрлири Every-һәр  бир Everybody\everyone-һәр  бир

Everybody\everyone likes fruits.

Һәмиси йемишләрни яхши көриду.

 

 

8

Some  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

thing- зат

something-немили  болса  бир  нәрсә

there is  something in the box.

Бу каробкиниң ичидә бир  нәрсә бар.

Any anything-  немили  болса  бир  нәрсә

 

there isn’t anything in the box.

Бу каробкиниң ичидә һеч нимә йоқ.

Is there  anything in the box?

Бу каробкиниң ичидә бир нәрсә барму?

No nothing-һеч  немә,һеч  нәрсә

there is nothing in the box.

Бу каробкиниң ичидә һеч нәрсә йоқ.

Every Everything-һәммиси

Everything is interesting in this book.

Бу китапниң ичидә қизиқ нәрсиләр бар.

 

 

           Жансиз нәрсиләгә қоллинидиған алмаш.

 

 

 

9

 

Аһаңлар

Уйғур тилида учрайду

[p] – [b] [f] – [v]

[k] –[g] [s] – [z]

[m] – [j]  [h] [ƞ]

44  аһаң
24 үзүк

 

Уйғур тилида учрашмайду

[θ], [ð],  [w],

айримчилиғи

[t]-[d]-[n]

[l]-[ʃ]-[ʒ]

[r]-[ʧ]-[ʤ]

20 созуқ
Дифтонги

[ei] [ai] [ɔi] [au] [əu]

[iə] [ɛə] [uə]

Қисқа

[i], [e], [æ], [ɔ],

[u], [ʌ], [ə]

Созулуп  ейтилиду 

[i:], [ɑ:], [ɔ:], [u:], [ə:]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

                 Much, many, a lot of\ lots of. (нурғун, көп)

 

Countable nouns

Санилидиған исимларға қоллинилиду

Uncountable nouns

Саналмайдиған исимларға қоллинилиду

Many           (are)

Many girls- нурғун қиз

Many boys-нурғун оғул

Many books-нурғун китап

There are many books on the boor-shelf.

Much                 (is)

Much snow-көп  қар

Much money-нурғун ахча

Much time-көп вақит

There is much water in the vase.

 

    How many

How many books?-                         Қанчилик китап?

Қанчә?, нәччә?

How much

How much snow?-                          Қанчилик қар?

 

                                                                                 A lot of\ lots of- нурғун, көп

There are a lot of books on the books-shelf. – шкафниң ичидә нурғун китап бар.

There is a lot of water in the coffee pot.- чөгүнниң ичидә нурғун су бар.

                       

                  A few, a little, few, little  (аз )

Санилидиған исимларға қолиниду.

A few\  few

Саналмайдиған исимларға қоллинилиду.

А little\  little

few books-китаплар аз

few girls-қизлар аз

few boys-оғуллар аз

little time-вақит аз

little money-ахча аз

little snow-қар аз

 

 

A little

азирақ  (һазирғичә йетиду)

A few

 

little

аз  (йәнә керәк)

few

 

 

Соаллар

Questions

 

1 What немә What’s this? Бу немә?
2 Which қайси Which of them? Униң қайсуси?
3 Who Ким, кимни Who was that? У ким болидекинә?
4 Whom кимни Whom did you meet? Сән кимни учраттиң?
5 Whose кимниңки Whose book is it? Бу кимниң китави?

 

 

Айлар

Инглизчә Оқулуши тәржимиси Қазақ тилида
January [ʤænjuəri ] Қәһритаң Қаңтар
February [‘februəri ] Һот Ақпан
March [mɑ:ʧ] Норуз Наурыз
April [ eipri’l] Үмүт Сәуір
May [mei ] Баһар Мамыр
June [ ʤu:n] Сәпәр Маусым
July [ʤu:’lɑi ] Чиллә Шілде
August [ɔ:ɡəst ] Томуз Тамыз
September [sep’tembə ] Мизан Қыркүйек
October [ ɔk’toubə] Оғуз Қазан
November [no(u)’embə ] Оғлақ Қараша
December [di’sembə ] Конәк желтоқсан

 

 

Мәзгилләр

season

инглизчә оқулуши тәржимиси Қазақ тилида
spring [] әтияз көктем
summer [] яз жаз
winter [] қиш қыс
Autumn [] күз күз

 

 

11

санлар

The Numeral

Санлар          (қанчә?) Рәтлик санлар   (қанчинчи?)
0 Zero 0
1 One 1st The first- [fə:st]
2 Two 2nd The second- [sek(ə)nd]
3 Three 3rd The third -[θə:d]
4 Four 4th The fourth -[fɔ:θ]
5 Five 5th The fifth- [fifθ]
6 Six 6th The sixth- [siksθ]
7 Seven 7th The seventh- [sevnθ]
8 Eight 8th The eighth- [eitθ]
9 Nine 9th The ninth- [nainθ]
10 Ten 10th The tenth- [tenθ]
11 Eleven 11th The eleventh- [i’levnθ]
12 Twelve 12th The twelfth- [twelfθ]
13 Thirteen 13th The thirteenth- [θə:tinθ]
14 Fourteen 14th The fourteenth- [fɔ:tinθ]
15 Fifteen 15th The fifteenth- [fiftinθ]
16 Sixteen 16th The sixteenth- [sikstinθ]
17 Seventeen 17th The seventeenth- [seventinθ]
18 Eighteen 18th The eighteenth -[eitinθ]
19 Nineteen 19th The nineteenth -[nintinθ]
20 Twenty 20th The twentieth -[twentiθ]
21 Twenty one 21st The twenty first- [ tweti fə:st]
30 Thirty 30th The thirtieth -[θə:tiθ]
40 Forty 40th The fortieth- [fɔ:tiθ]
50 Fifty 50th The fiftieth -[fiftiθ]
60 Sixty 60th The sixtieth -[ sikstiθ]
70 Seventy 70th The seventieth -[seventiθ]
80 Eighty 80th the eightieth- [eitiθ]
90 Ninety 90th The ninetieth- [nintiθ]
100  one hundred 100th The hundredth- [hʌndredθ]
101 One hundred and one 101st The hundred and first-[hʌndred ənd wʌn]
1000 One thousand 1000th The thousandth-[θɑuzəndθ]
1001 One thousand and one 1001st The thousand and first-[θɑuzənd ənd fə:st]
1056 Ten fifty-six
1983 Nineteen eighty-three
1807 Eighteen 0 seven
2007 Two thousand seven

 

Исимларниң көплүк қошумчилири.

The plural form of nouns.

 

Исимларниң  көплүк  қошумчилар  билән түрлиниши мисал тәржимиси Қошумчиларниң оқулуши
 

Жараңсиз  үзүк  тавушлардин  кейин

 

 

a book-books

a  cup-cups

Уйғур тилида  -лар, -ләр, қошумчилири қошилиду

Китап- китаплар

Чинә- чиниләр

[s]
Жараңлиқ  үзүк  тавушлардин  кейин a name-names

a girl-girls

Исим -исимлар

Қиз- қизлар

[z]
 сирлаңғу тавушлардин кейин

-ch, -sh, -x, -s, -z: es

a dress-dresses

a bush-bushes

a fox-foxes

a church- churches

Көйнәк көйнәкләр

чатқаллиқ

Түлкә түлкиләр

[iz]
-y һәрипи билән аяқлашқанда

1) созуқ  + y

 

2) үзүк  + y            i

a toy- toys

a boy –boys

 

 

family-families

a country –countries

Оюнчуқ- оюнчуқлар

Оғул -оғуллар

 

 

Аилә -аилиләр

мәмликәт-мәмликәтләр

 [z]

 

 

 

[iz]

-f\fe       һәрипләр  билән аяқлашса           ves a leaf –leaves

a shelf -shelves

Йопурмақ- йопурмақлар

Тәкчә-тәкчиләр

[vz]

 

14

Ярим 1\2 A half
Үчтин  бир 1\3 A third
Төрттин  бир 1\4 A quarter
Бәштин  бир 1\5 One fifth
Төрттин  үч 3\4 Three quarter
Үчтин  икки 2\3 Two thirds
Бир пүтүн  иккидин  бир 1  1\2 One and half
Бир  пүтүн  төрттин  үч 1  3\4 One and three quarter
Ноль пүтүн  ондин  бәш 0.5 Nought point five
Бир  пүтүн   йүздин  йәтмиш  бәш 1.75 One point seventy five
Жигирмә  төрт  пайиз 24% Twenty-four per cent

 

Көплүк түриниң пәйда  болуш  алаһидилиги

Бирлик түри Көплүк түри Тәржимиси
 Man

woman

foot

goose

child

mouse

ox

tooth

 

men

women

feet

geese

children

mice

oxen

teeth

Адәм -адәмләр

Аял- аяллар

Пут- путлар

Өдәк- өдәкләр

Бала- балилар

Чашқан- чашқанлар

Буқа -буқилар

Чиш- чишлар

 

15

 

Сүпәтләрниң селиштурма түрлири.

The Adjective.

Инглиз тилида сүпәтләр өзгәрмәйду,  пәқәт улар сүпәт  ясиғучи  қошумчиларниң  улиниши  арқилиқ  ясилиду.

Сүпәтләрниң үч түри болиду.

Улар: Сүпәт (positive Degree )      cold

Селиштурма  (Comparative Degree)                              +er     colder

Ашурма  яки  күчәйтмә (Superlative Degree)                the  Adj  +est      the coldest

Көп боғумлуқ  сүпәтләрниң алдиға қоюлиду.           More,   the most

 

  1.         ясилиши
Сүпәтләр Селиштурма күчәйтмә
Clod-соғ Colder-соғарақ The coldest-наһайти соғ
Big-йоған Bigger-йоғанирақ The biggest-наһайити йоған
Kind-ақ  көңүл Kinder The kindest

 

                                              16

     

    —y,  —er,  —ow,  —ble      һәрипләр билән  аяқлашқанда.

Сүпәтләр Селиштурма күчәйтмә
clever-әқиллиқ Cleverer— әқиллигәрәк The cleverest-наһайити әқиллиқ
easy-адий easier-адийрақ The easiest-наһайити аддий

 

  1.      көп боғумлуқ сүпәтләр.
Сүпәтләр Селиштурма күчәйтмә
Interesting-қизиқ more interesting-қизиғирақ the most interesting-наһайити қизиқ
Beautiful-чирайлиқ more beautiful-чирайлиғирақ the most beautiful-наһайити чирайлиқ
Comfortable-қолайлиқ more comfortable-қолайлиғарақ the most comfortable-  наһайити  қолайлиқ

17

умумий қаидиләрсиз сүпәтләрниң селиштурма дәрижилириниң ясилиши

Хата сүпәтләрниң ясилиши.

Сүпәтләр Селиштурма күчәйтмә
good-яхши better-яхширақ The best-наһайити яхши
bad-кона worse-конарақ The worst-наһайити кона
little-кичик less-кичигирәк The least-наһайити кичик
Much\many-нурғун More –нурғунирақ The most –наһайити нурғун

 

Zaporozhets is a good car

 

Moskvich is a better car

 

Ziguli is the best car

18

Бәлгүлүсиз вә бәгүлик артикль.

Indefinite and Definite Articles.

 

Инглиз тилида артикльниң икки түри болиду .

Улар: a, an  бәлгүсиз артикль  (бир) дегән  мәнани билдүридү ,

The бәлгүлик артикль  бәлгүлик бир нәрсини көрсәткәндә (мону) дәп ениқ ейтқанда қоллинимиз.

 Бәлгүсиз- Indefinite                  a, an Бәлгүлик- Definite                The
a a  dog-ишт

a  boy-оғул

a  book-китап

a  girl- қиз

Бәлгүлик бир нәрсә тоғрисида ейтқандила

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The sun-күн

The moon-ай

The sky-асман

The Earth-йәр

The world- аләм

Aa, Ee, Ii, Oo, Uu, Yy  созуқ тавушларниң алдиға (an) артикильи қоллинилиду. an apple- алма

an elephant-пил

an octopus- сәккиз путлуқ

an umbrella-зонтик

an yogurt- йогурт

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

түрлири

Бир нәрсини рәңгини шәклини ейтқанда

 

I see a cat.

The cat is black.

Мән мөшүк көрдүм. Мөшүкниң рәңги қара.

Мону сөзләрниң алдида: only (бирла), main (главный), central (мәркизи), left (соңға), right (оңға), wrong (дурус әмәс), next (келәси), last (ахирқи), final (йәкүн).

 

 

 

The only book I love- маңа яққан бирла китап

The main road-чоң йол

To the left-солға

To the right-оңға

It  was the right answer-у дурус жавави болған.

The final-йәкүнләш тест

 

Рәтлик санлар алдида

 

The first-биринчи

The tenth-онинчи

 

 

Ашурма  сүпәтләрниң алдиға

 

The best-наһайити яхши

The most interesting-наһайити қизиқ

 

Музыкилиқ әсваплар алдиға

 

To play the piano-пионино ойнаш

 

 

Газет, журнал, галерея, музей намлириниң алдиға

 

The hermitage- Эрмитаж

 

The Uigur avazy-Уйғур авази

20

Орун рәвишләр

Prepositions of place        Prepositions
 

 

 

 

Prepositions of place

 

Орун рәвишлири

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Оn-үстидә

In-ичидә

in front of-алдида

behind-кәйнидә

under-астида

between- оттурида

among- арисида

in the middle of-мәркизидә

on the right-оңда

on the left-солда

at, by -йенида

near-кешида

not far-жирақ әмәс

a long way from-жирақ

 

 

Prepositions of Movement

 

Һәрикәт  рәвишлири

to the left-сол яққа

to the right-оң яққа

straight ahead-уттур

up-үстигә

down-төвәнгә

along-жирақтин

across- арқилиқ

round-айлан

 

 

 

21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepositions of

time

Вақит рәвишлири

 

seasons

пәслләр

in the spring-әтиязда

in the summer-язда

in the autumn-күздә

in the winter-қишта

 

Days of the week

Һәптидики күнләр

 

on Monday-дүшәнби дә

on Tuesday-сишәнби дә

on Wednesday-чаршәнби дә

on Thursday-пәйшәнби дә

on Friday-жүмә дә

on Saturday-шәнби дә

 on Sunday-йәкшәнби дә

 

Years

Жиллар

in May 1983- 1983 жили майда

in the 1990- 1990 жилида

during  the eighties- сәксининчи жиллириғичә

          Centuries

Әсирләр

in the 15-th century-15 чи әсирләрдә

during 18-th century- 18 чи әсирләргичә

 

 

at 2 o’clock- саат  2  дә

by 6 o’clock-саат 6 дин

since 4 o’clock-саат 4  тин

from 5 to 6- 5 тин 6 чә

till 10 o’clock-  саат 10 чә

in 3  days summer- 3 күндин кейин яз  пәсли

for 2 weeks-  2  һәптидә

during  the holidays-  тәтилдә

before my summer holidays- мениң язлиқ тәтилимгичә.

after my summer holidays-  мениң язлиқ тәтилимдин кейин.

 

 

 

 

22

Асасий  җүмлә түзидиған ярдәмчи  пеиллар.

Do пеил

 

Инфинитив  (Infinitive ) To do What to do?-
Шәхсий формиси(Present simple) do\dose I do my exercises every day.-Мән  көнүкмини  күндә  орунлаймән
ІІ формиси (past simple) Did I did it yesterday-Түнүгүн  мән  ишлидим
ІІІ формиси (past Participle) Done I have already done my homework-мән  өй  тапшурмисини  һәр  қачан  орунлаймән
ІV формиси (present Participle ) Doing What are you doing now?-Һазир  сән  немә  қиливатисән?

23

Have пеил

Инфинитив  (Infinitive ) To have It’s wonderful to have a dog.-
Шәхсий формиси(Present simple) Have\has I have\ have got a dog.-
ІІ формиси (past simple) had I had two free days.-
ІІІ формиси (past Participle) had I have already had breakfast.-
ІV формиси (present Participle ) having I am having breakfast now.-
Инфинитив  (Infinitive ) To be To be or not to be?.-
Шәхсий формиси(Present simple) am, is, are I am a teacher.-
 past simple Was\were We were in Almaty.-
Future simple Will\shall be I’ll be cold.-
ІІІ формиси (past Participle) been Have you ever been to London?.-
ІV формиси (present Participle ) being Being my friend….-

Дурус җүмлә түзүш формулири

Алмашларниң ярдәмчи пеиллири.

be пеили             am, is, are.

аm һәр қачан І  билән биргә ясилиду.   I am\ I’m
I’m Sabina. Мән Сабина.
I’m a girl\ a boy. Мән қиз\ оғул.
I’m 7 (years old). Маңа йәттә яш.
I’m sorry. Кәчүрисиз.
I’m happy. Мән бәхитлик.
I’m a doctor. Мән дохтур.

 

24

is һәр қачан he, she, it  билән биргә ясилиду.   he, she, it is\ he’s, she’s,  it’s.
She’s  Sabina. У Сабина.
She\ he’s a girl\ a boy. У қиз\оғул.
He’s 7 (years old). У йәттә яшта.
He’s thirsty. У уссап кәтти.
She’s happy. У бәхитлик.
It’s a dog. У ишт.

 

are һәр қачан we, you, they  билән биргә ясилиду.   we are, you are, they are.
We are Pupils Биз оқуғучи.
You are girls \  boys Сән қиз\ оғул.
They are 7 (years old) Уларға йәттә яш.
You are the best. Сән наһайити яхши.
They are happy Улар бәхитлик.
We are hungry Биз ач.

25

To be пеилиниң ясилиши

(Present simple (Indefinite) Һазирқи заман

Simple и Indefinite – бир  заманниң  икки  түрлүк  атилиши– аддий  болушсиз. Грамматикилиқ  заман топи simple \Indefinite  иш  һәрикәтниң  әмәлгә  ашқан  яки  ашмиғанлиғини  билдүриду.

Заман  топи Present (һазирқи),  Past (өткән),  future (келидиған) заманларни simple \Indefinite өз  ичигә  алиду

 

      Хәвәр җүмлә

S + am, is, are

Болумсиз җүмлә

S +( am, is, are) not

Соал җүмлә

Am, is, are + S?

I am

I’m a boy.

 

I am not

I’m not a boy.

Am I?

Am I a boy?

Yes, I am.

No, I am not.

He is

He is hungry.

 

He is not(he isn’t)

He isn’t hungry.

Is he?

Is he hungry?

Yes, he is.

No, he isn’t.

She is

She is a teacher.

 

She is not ( she isn’t)

She isn’t a teacher.

Is she?

Is she a teacher?

Yes, she is.

No, she isn’t.

It is

It is a dog.

 

It is not (it isn’t)

It isn’t a dog.

Is it?

Is it a dog?

Yes, it is.

No, it isn’t.

We are

We are students.

We’re

We are not( we aren’t)

We aren’t students.

Are we?

Are we students?

Yes, we are.

No, we aren’t.

You are

You are Uigur.

You are not ( you aren’t)

You aren’t Russian.

Are you?

Are you Uigur?

Yes, you are.

No, you aren’t.

They are

They are happy.

They are not ( they aren’t)

They aren’t happy.

Are they?

Are they happy?

Yes, they are.

No, they aren’t.

Вақит  һалити,  Present tansеқа хас

seldom-арилап-арилап

often-пат-пат

every ( day, year, lesson)-һәр( күни,жили, дәристә)

sometimes-бәзидә

always-һәр   қачан

from time to time-вақит  өткәнсери

usually-адәттикидәк

as a rule-қаидиләргә  асаслинип

generally-алаһидә

 

 

Хәвәр җүмлә

S + was

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + was not

Соал җүмлә

Was + S?

I was

I was a right.

I was not (I wasn’t)

I wasn’t right.

Was I ?

Was I right?

Yes, I was

No, I wasn’t

He was

He was hungry.

He was not( he wasn’t)

He wasn’t hungry.

Was He?

Was he hungry?

Yes, he was

No, he wasn’t

She was

She was a teacher.

She was not (she wasn’t)

She wasn’t a teacher.

Was She?

Was she a teacher?

Yes, she was

No, she wasn’t

It was

It was big.

It was not ( it wasn’t)

It wasn’t big.

Was It?

Was it big?

Yes, it was

No, it wasn’t

We were

We were the best

We were not ( we weren’t)

We weren’t the best.

Were We?

Were we best?

Yes, we was

No, we wasn’t

You were

You were kind.

You were not( you weren’t)

You weren’t kind.

Were You?

Were you kind?

Yes, you was

No, you wasn’t

They were

They were thirsty

They were not (they weren’t)

They weren’t thirsty

Were they?

Were they thirsty?

Yes, they was

No, they wasn’t

 Past  tansқа хас вақит һалити

yesterday-түнүгүн

the day before yesterday-алдинқи күни

ago ( 2 days, 3 years)-(икки күн, үч жил) бурун.

last ( year, week, month)-алдинқи(жили, һәптә, ай)

in 1998- 1998 жилида

To be пеилиниң ясилиши

(Past simple (Indefinite)  өткән заман.

To be пеилиниң ясилиши

(Future simple (Indefinite) келидиған заман.

Хәвәр җүмлә

S + shall\will +be

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + shan’t\ won’t be

Соал җүмлә

Shall\ will + S+ be?

I shall be

I shall be 7 year old.

I shall not be (I shan’t)

I shall not be 200 year old.

Shall I be?

Shall I be 7 year old?

Yes, I shall

No, I shan’t

He will be

He will be right.

He will not  be (he won’t)

He won’t be eight.

Will He be?

Will he be right?

She will be

She will be a teacher.

She will not be ( she won’t)

She won’t be a teacher.

Will She be?

Will she be a teacher?

It will be

It will be a big.

It will not be ( it won’t)

It won’t be a bog.

Will it be?

Will it be a big?

We shall be

We shall be the best.

We shall not be ( we shan’t)

We shan’t be the best.

Shall We be?

Shall we be the best?

You will be

You will be kind.

You will not be (you won’t)

You won’t be kind.

Will You be?

Will you be kind?

They will be

They will be thirsty.

They will not be ( they won’t)

They won’t be thirsty.

Will They be?

Will they be thirsty?

future tansқа хас вақит һалити

tomorrow-әтә

the day after tomorrow-өгүнлүккә

next-келәси

in (a year, 2 hours)-кейин . 1 жилдин кеин 2с кейин)

 

(Present simple (Indefinite)  аддий Һазирқи заман.

Һазирқи заман түрлири

әгәр жүмлидә бирлик түридики исим яки 3-шәхс алмиши жүмлиниң егиси болса у чағда пеилға s\es улиниду

go+ -s =goes [ɡəuz]                           have + -s =has [hæz]

do + -s = does [dʌz]

кетип баримән –кетип бариду                 мәндә бар  —   униңда бар                    ишләватимән  -ишләватиду

he, she, it ————runs———— жүгрәватиду.

Хәвәр җүмлидә He runs,                                     she runs,                           it runs.
Болумсиз җүмлижә  He  does not run,                   she does not run,             it does not run.
Соал җүмлидә Does he run?,            does she run?              Does it run?
Хәвәр җүмлә

S +V1

Болумсиз җүмлә

S +do\does + not +V1

Соал җүмлә

do+ S+ V1 ?

I work I do not (don’t) work.     Do I work?

Yes, I do

No, I don’t

He works He does not (doesn’t) work Does he work?

Yes, he does

No, he doesn’t

She works She does not (doesn’t) work Does she work?

Yes, she does

No, she doesn’t

It works It does not (doesn’t) work Does it work?

Yes, it does

No, it doesn’t

We work We do not(don’t) work do we work ?

Yes, we do

No, we don’t

You work You do not ( you don’t) work Do you work?

Yes, you do

No, you don’t

They work They do not (don’t) work Do they work?

Yes, they do

No, they don’t

 

(Past  simple (Indefinite) аддий өткән заман формиси.

 

 

Past  simple (аддий өткән заман формис) дурус пеилларға хәвәр жүмлидила + ed қошумчиси қошулиду, хата  пеиларниң өткән заман формисида  йезилиду.

Work-иш                         worked-ишлиди, ишлидим.

М:    see-көрүш.                       saw-көрди, көрдүм.

Соал жүмлидә вә болумсиз жүмлидә do\does өткән заман формиси did пеили арқилиқ ясилиду.

 

 

 

32

Хәвәр җүмлә

S + V2 \  ed

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + did +not +V 1

Соал җүмлә

Did + S + V1?

I worked

I saw

     I did not (didn’t) work-                I didn’t see Did I  work?

Did I see?

Yes, I did

No, I didn’t

He worked

He saw

He did not(didn’t) work

He didn’t see

Did he work?

Did he see?

Yes, he did

No, he didn’t

She worked

She saw

      She did not (didn’t) work

She didn’t see

Did she work ?

Did she see?

Yes, he did

No, he didn’t

It worked

It saw

It did not ( didn’t) work

It didn’t see

Did it work?

Did it see?

Yes, it did

No, it didn’t

We worked

We saw

We did not ( didn’t) work

We didn’t see

Did we work?

Did we see?

Yes, we did

No, we didn’t

You worked

You saw

You did not( didn’t) work

You didn’t see

 

Did you work?

Did you see?

Yes, you did

No, you didn’t

They worked

They saw

    They did not ( didn’t ) work

They didn’t see

 

Did they work?

Did they see?

Yes, they did

No, they didn’t

33

(Future simple (Indefinite) адий һазирқи заман.

Келидиған заман пеили-бу  Shall  яки  to уланмисисиз   will ярдәмчи пеили

I shall go to school tomorrow.

I                                              he, she, it

Shall + V1                                                Will + V1         Will will +V1

We                                         you, they

 

Хәвәр җүмлә

S + will\shall + V1

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + won’t\shan’t + V1

Соал җүмлә

Will\ shall + S + V1?

I shall work I shall not (shan’t) work Shall I work?

Yes, I shall

No, I shan’t

He will work He will not (won’t) work Will He work?

Yes, he will

No, he won’t

She will work She will not (won’t) work Will She work?

Yes, she will

No, she won’t

It will work It will not (won’t) work Will It work?

Yes, it will

No, it won’t

We shall work We shall not (shan’t) work Shall We work?

Yes, we shall

No, we shan’t

You will work You will not (won’t) work Will You work

Yes, you will

No, you won’t

They will work They will not (won’t) work Will They work?

Yes, they will

No, they won’t

Узақ вақит Progressive (continuous)

(to be) + ing

Continuous  сөзини  инглиз тилидин тәржимә қилғанда  «үзлүксиз , узақ».дегән мәнани билдүриду

 

continuous групписидики вақитлири (simple (Indefinite)  аддий вақит групписи  һәрикәтни атапла қоймай, униң тәрәққий етишини,  прогрессиясини көрситиду, мошуниң нәтижисидә Progressive дегән иккинчи нами чиққан

continuous  групписидики  вақит  узақ вақит қоллинилиду,ениқ бир пәйттин башланған һазирқи,өткән;келидиған замандики болуватқан, болған вә болидиған һәрикәтни көрситиду . Бу һәрикәт турақсиз һәм вақити чәкләнгән

өткән заманға қаритилған continuous гупписиниң векторлирида  , шундақла өткән вә келидиған заманға яки һазирқи заман һәрикитини көрситидиған миннәтлик түрдә һесават чекити болиду Дәл м.шу пәйттә   (Past continuous)болған. (Present continuous)болуватиду.Яки  (Future continuous)болиду.

 

Past continuous                              Present continuous                       Future continuous

 

6 o’clock(tomorrow)                            6 o’clock( yesterday)

now

Түнүгүн саат алтидә.                                  Һазир.                                        Әтә саат алтидә.

 

34

Present continuous tense һазирқи заман давами

 Хәвәр җүмлә

S + am, is, are +

       V ing

Болумсиз җүмлә

S +( am, is, are) not +

V ing   

Соал җүмлә

Am, is, are + S + Ving ?

 

I am working. I am not working.

I don’t working.

Am I working?

What are you doing?

Yes, I am.

No, I am not.

He is working. He isn’t working. Is he working?

Yes, he is.

No, he isn’t.

She is working.

 

She is not (isn’t) working.

 

Is she working?

Yes, she is.

No, she isn’t.

It is working.

 

It is not (isn’t) working.

 

Is it working?

Yes, it is.

No, it isn’t.

We are working.

 

We are not (aren’t) working.

 

Are we working?

Yes, we are.

No, she aren’t.

You are working.

 

You are not (aren’t) working.

 

Are you working?

Yes, you are.

No, you aren’t.

They are working.

 

They are not (aren’t) working.

 

Are they working?

Yes, they are.

No, they aren’t.

 

 

35

Past continuous tense өткән заман давами

Хәвәр җүмлә

S + was+ V ing

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + was not+ V ing

Соал җүмлә

Was + S +V ing?

I was working.

 

I was not (wasn’t) working.

 

Was I working?

Yes, I was

No, I wasn’t

He was working.

 

He was not (wasn’t) working.

 

Was He working?

Yes, he was

No, he wasn’t

She was working.

 

She was not (wasn’t) working.

 

Was She working?

Yes, she was

No, she wasn’t

It was working.

 

It was not (wasn’t) working.

 

Was It working?

Yes, it was

No, it wasn’t

We were working.

 

We were not (weren’t) working.

 

Were we working?

Yes, we was

No, we wasn’t

You were working.

 

You were not (weren’t) working.

 

Were You working?

Yes, you was

No, you wasn’t

They were working.

 

They were not (weren’t) working.

 

Were they working?

Yes, they was

No, they wasn’t

 

36

 

Future continuous tense Келидиған заман давами

Хәвәр җүмлә

S + shall\will +be+ V ing

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + shan’t\ won’t be+ V ing

Соал җүмлә

Shall\ will + S+ be + V ing?

I shall be working.

(I’ll be)

I shall not be (shan’t) working.

 

Shall I be working?

Yes, I shall

No, I shan’t

He will be working.

(He’ll be)

He will not be (won’t) working.

 

Will He be working?

Yes, he will

No, he won’t

She will be working.

(She’ll be)

She will not be (won’t) working.

 

Will She be working?

Yes, she will

No, she won’t

It will be working.

 

It will not be (won’t) working.

 

Will it be working?

Yes, it will

No, it won’t

We shall be working.

(We’ll be)

We shall not be (shan’t) working.

 

Shall We be working?

Yes, we shall

No, we shan’t

You will be working.

(You’ll be)

You will not be (won’t) working.

 

Will You be working?

Yes, you will

No, you won’t

They will be working.

(They’ll be)

They will not be (won’t) working.

 

Will They be working?

Yes, they will

No, they won’t

37

 

Perfect

(Perfect tenses)   «өтүмлүк вақит»топи   ( Present Perfect tense)һазирқи , өткән (Past Perfect tense), вә келидиған заман  (Future Perfect tense)пеиллиридин туриду .

Уйғур тилида Perfect топиға жүмлиниң мәнасиға қарап өткән заман пеилиниң өтүмлүк яки өтүмсиз түри тоғра келиду .

Өзигә хас хислити-һәрикәт вақитидики акцент.Һәрикәтниң болған болмиғини муһим әмәс.

(to have) + V-ed        дурус пеилға \        V3           хата пеилға

 

Present Perfect tense һазирқи заман болған һәрикәт

  Хәвәр җүмлә

S + have/has + V3

Болумсиз җүмлә

S +have/has + not + V3

Соал җүмлә

Have/has + S + V3 ?

I have written a letter.

 

I have not (haven’t) written a letter.

 

      Have I written a letter?

Yes, I have.

No, I haven’t.

He has written a letter.

 

He has not (hasn’t) written a letter.

 

has he written a letter?

Yes, he has.

No, he hasn’t.

She has written a letter.

 

She has not (hasn’t) written a letter.

 

Has she written a letter?

Yes, she has.

No, she hasn’t.

It has written a letter.

 

It has not (hasn’t) written a letter.

 

Has it written a letter?

Yes, it has.

No, it hasn’t.

We have written a letter.

 

We have not (haven’t) written letter.

 

Have we written a letter?

Yes, we have.

No, we haven’t.

You have written a letter.

 

You have not (haven’t) written a letter.

 

Have you written a letter?

Yes, you have.

No, you haven’t.

They have written a letter.

 

They have not (haven’t) written a letter.

 

Have they written a letter?

Yes, they have.

No, they haven’t.

 

Past Perfect tense өткән заманда болған һәрикәт

  Past Perfect tense да шәхс яки жүмлә егисиниң түри муһим әмәс.

(to have)  ярдәмчи пеили һәммә жүмлә егилиридә  had формисида ишлитилиду:

I

He, she, it

We                                               had + V3

You

They

 

  Хәвәр җүмлә

S + had+ V3

Болумсиз җүмлә

S +had+ not + V3

Соал җүмлә

Had + S + V3 ?

I had cooked.

 

 

I had written.

I had not (hadn’t) cooked.

 

 

I hadn’t written.

Had I cooked?

Yes, I had

No, I hadn’t

Had I written?

He had cooked.

 

 

He had written.

He had not (hadn’t) cooked.

 

He had not (hadn’t) written.

Had he cooked?

Yes, he had

No, he hadn’t

Had he written?

She had cooked.

 

 

She had written.

She had not (hadn’t) cooked.

 

She had not (hadn’t) written.

Had she cooked?

Yes, she had

No, she hadn’t

Had she written?

It had cooked.

 

 

It had written.

It had not (hadn’t) cooked.

 

It had not (hadn’t) written.

Had it cooked?

Yes, it had

No, it hadn’t

Had it written?

We had cooked.

 

 

We had written.

We had not (hadn’t) cooked.

 

We had not (hadn’t) written.

Had we cooked?

Yes ,we had

No, we  hadn’t

Had we written?

You had cooked.

 

 

You had written.

You had not (hadn’t) cooked.

 

You had not (hadn’t) written.

Had you cooked?

Yes, you had

No, you hadn’t

Had you written?

They had cooked.

 

 

They had written.

They had not (hadn’t) cooked.

 

They had not (hadn’t) written.

Had they cooked?

Yes, they had

No, they  hadn’t

Had they written?

Future Perfect tense келидиған заманпеили

Хәвәр җүмлә

S + shall\will have + V3

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + shan’t\ won’t have+ V3

Соал җүмлә

Shall\ will + S+ have + V3?

I shall have worked.

 

 

I shall have written.

I shall not (shan’t) have worked.

 

I shall not (shan’t) have written.

Shall I have worked?

Yes, we shall

No, we shan’t

Shall I have written?

He will have worked.

 

 

He will have written.

He will not (won’t) have worked.

 

He will not (won’t) have written.

Will he have worked?

Yes, they will

No, they won’t

Will he have written?

She will have worked.

 

 

She will have written.

She will not (won’t) have worked.

 

She will not (won’t) have written.

Will she have worked?

Yes, they will

No, they won’t

Will she have written?

It will have worked.

 

 

It will have written.

It will not (won’t) have worked.

 

It will not (won’t) have written.

Will it have worked?

Yes, they will

No, they won’t

Will it have written?

We shall have worked.

 

 

We shall have written.

We shall not (shan’t) have worked.

 

We shall not (shan’t) have written.

Shall we have worked?

Yes, we shall

No, we shan’t

Shall we have written?

You will have worked.

 

 

You will have written.

You will not (won’t) have worked.

 

You will not (won’t) have written.

Will you have worked?

Yes, they will

No, they won’t

Will you have written?

They will have worked.

 

 

They will have written.

They will not (won’t) have worked.

 

You will not (won’t) have written.

Will they have worked?

Yes, they will

No, they won’t

Will they have written?

 

Perfect Continuous.

 

 

«узақ өткән» вақит топи  (Perfect Continuous Tenses) һазирқи уақ өткән вақитидин   (Present Perfect Continuous Tenses),өткән узақ вақитидин, (Past Perfect Continuous Tenses), вә келидиған узақ вақитидин (Future Perfect Continuous Tenses) туриду.

Perfect Continuous топидики вақитибир ениқ пәйттә башланған һазирқи яки келидиған заманда болған һәрикәтниң узақлиғини билдүрүш үчүн қоллинилиду.

 

 

41

Present Perfect Continuous Tenses

һазирқи узақ вақит пеиллири

 

  Хәвәр җүмлә

S + have/has been+ V ing

Болумсиз җүмлә

S +have/has not + been+ V ing

Соал җүмлә

Have/has + S + been +V ing ?

I have been working.

 

I have not (haven’t) been working.

 

      Have I been working?

Yes, I have.

No, I haven’t.

He has been working.

 

He has not (hasn’t) been working.

 

has he been working?

Yes, he has.

No, he hasn’t.

She has been working.

 

She has not (hasn’t) been working.

 

has she been working?

Yes, she has.

No, she hasn’t.

It has been working.

 

It has not (hasn’t) been working.

 

Has it been working?

Yes, it has.

No, it hasn’t.

We have been working.

 

We have not (haven’t) been working.

 

      Have we been working?

Yes, we have.

No, we haven’t.

You have been working.

 

You have not (haven’t) been working.

 

      Have you been working?

Yes, you have.

No, you haven’t.

They have been working.

 

They have not (haven’t) been working.

 

      Have they been working?

Yes, they have.

No, they haven’t.

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tenses                                            өткән заман узақ вақит пеиллири

                    Хәвәр җүмлә

S + had been+ V ing

Болумсиз җүмлә

S +had not + been +V ing

Соал җүмлә

      Had + S + been +V ing ?

I had been working.

 

I had not (hadn’t) been working.

 

      Had I been working?

Yes, I had.

No, I hadn’t.

He had been working.

 

He had not (hadn’t) been working.

 

      Had he been working?

Yes, he had.

No, he hadn’t.

She had been working.

 

She had not (hadn’t) been working.

 

      Had she been working?

Yes, she had.

No, she hadn’t.

It had been working.

 

It had not (hadn’t) been working.

 

      Had it been working?

Yes, it had.

No, it hadn’t.

We had been working.

 

We had not (hadn’t) been working.

 

      Had we been working?

Yes, we had.

No, we hadn’t.

You had been working.

 

You had not (hadn’t) been working.

 

      Had you been working?

Yes, you had.

No, you hadn’t.

They had been working.

 

They had not (hadn’t) been working.

 

      Had they been working?

Yes, they had.

No, they hadn’t.

 

Future Perfect Continuous Tenses                                келидиған заман узақ вақит пеиллири

  Хәвәр җүмлә

S + will +have been+ V ing

Болумсиз җүмлә

S + will not + have been+ V ing

Соал җүмлә

will + S + have been +V ing ?

I shall have been working.

 

I shall not (shan’t) have been working.

 

    Shall I have been working?

Yes, I shall.

No, I shan’t.

He will have been working.

 

He will not (won’t) have been working.

 

Will he have been working?

Yes, he will.

No, he won’t.

She will have been working.

 

She will not (won’t) have been working.

 

Will she have been working?

Yes, she will.

No, she won’t.

It will have been working.

 

It will not (won’t) have been working.

 

will it have been working?

Yes, it will.

No, it won’t.

We shall have been working.

 

We shall not (shan’t) have been working.

 

Shall we have been working?

Yes, we shall.

No, we shan’t.

You will have been working.

 

You will not (won’t) have been working.

 

 Will you have been working?

Yes, you will.

No, you won’t.

They will have been working.

 

They will not (won’t) have been working.

 

Will they have been   working?

Yes, they will.

No, they won’t.

 

45

 

Future-in-the-Past өткән замандики келидиған заман

Әгәр беқинда жүмлидики һәрикәт баш жүмлидики һәрикәттин кейин болса өткән әһвалниң келидиған заманини билдүрсә у чағда беқинда жүмлидики пеил Future-in-the-Past-алаһидә формисида ишлитилиду ,өткән замандики келидиған заман would ярдәмчи пеилидин вә to уланмисидин ясилиду:

 

Future simple Future-in-the-Past
I will do my room.

Мән өзәмниң бөлмисини тазилаймән.

He said that he would do his room.

У  өзәмниң бөлмәмни тазилаймән дәп  ейтти.

Future Continuous Future-in-the-Past
I will be doing my room from 3 or 5.

3 тин 5 чә бөлмәмни тазилаймән.

He said that he would be doing his room from 3 or 5.

У  3тин 5 чә өзиниң бөлмисини тазилаймән- деди.

Future Perfect Future-in-the-Past
I will have done my room when you come.

Сән кәлгичә мән бөлмәмни тазилаветимән.

He said that he would have done his room when I come.

мән кәлгичә у бөлмисини тазилаветимән деди.

Future Perfect continuous Future-in-the-Past
I will have been doing my room for two hours when you come.

Шу пәйттә,сән кәлгәндә,мән 2саат өз бөлмәмни тазилаймән .

He said that he would have been doing his room for two hours when I come.

У мән кәлгән пәйттә 2 саат өз бөлмисини тазилайдиғинини ейтти .

 

46

Вақит һаләтлириниң  кәштиси

Үч топиға – Simple, Continuous, Perfect.

  Simple / Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Present every, always, often, seldom, sometimes, usually, as a rule, generally, from time to time Now Already, just, ever, never, yet, before, today, this(month, year, week,) since, for Already…for, since
Past Yesterday, the day yesterday, (2 days, 3 years), last ( year, Sunday, lesson) Yesterday at 5 o’clock, yesterday from 5 till 6, yesterday when he came, yesterday the whole evening By….

Before

By….

for

Future Tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next (year, week, month), in(2 days) Yesterday at 5 o’clock, yesterday from 5 till 6, yesterday when he came, yesterday the whole evening By….

Before

By….

for

Future-in-the-Past He said that… He said that… He said that… He said that…

 

47

 

South- жәнуп
West -ғәрип

 

East-шәриқ
North- West

 

North- East
South- West
South- East
North-шималий

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48

Иглиз тилида саатниң етилиши

What time is it?

12 o’ clock

5 minutes                             5 past 12

         to 12

 

 

 

                     a quarter                                                 aquarter past

                         to 12                                                             12

 

 

                             20 minutes                                    

                                   to 12

                                                                             25past 12

                                                   Half hast 12