Ағылшын тілі грамматикасы сызба кестелерде

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Ағылшын тілі грамматикасы сызба кестелерде

Sequence of tenses (Шақтардың қиысуы)

1 Present Indefinite Past Indefinite
2 Present Continuous Past Continuous
3 Present Perfect Past Perfect
4 Past Indefinite Past Perfect
5 Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
6 Past Perfect Past Perfect
7 Future Indefinite Future — in the Past

 

Direct Speech Indirect Speech Direct Speech Indirect Speech
now then next week the next week

the following week

today that day last week the previous week
tomorrow the next day

the following day

last year the year before
the day after tomorrow two days later here there
yesterday the day before

the previous day

this that
the day before yesterday two days before these those
ago before

 

Conditional sentences

 

Structure Example Expresses
Real  

Fut.Sim.+ if +Pr.Sim

 

If+Pr.Sim + Fut.Sim.

 

I’ll go to the cinema,

if I am not busy

If I am not busy,

I’ll go to the cinema

Real situation and its result
Unreal  

Fut-in the P.+if+Past Sim.

 

If+Past Sim. +Fut-in the P.

 

I would travel all over the world, if I had much money

 

Unreal situation and its result

 

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Rules of reading

 

Vowels I type

(open)

II type

(closed)

III type

(V+r)

IV type

(V+r+V)

Aa [ei] [ei] plate [æ] bag [a:] car [εә] hare
Oo [ou] [ou] pose [o] box [o:] fork [o:] more
Ee [i:] [i:] tree [e] ten [ә:] her [iә] here
Ii [ai] [ai] nine [I] six [ә:] girl [aiә] fire
Yy [ai] [ai] my [I] gym [ә:] byrd [іә] tyre
Uu [ju:] [ju:] pupil [^] bus [ә:] turn [juә] pure

 

Spain ai [ei] oo+k [u] Book
Day ay oo [u:] Foot
August au [o:] ow [au] Out
Law aw ou Brown
Sea ea [i:] ow [ou] Window
Meet ee oa [ou] Oak
New ew [ju:] ai+r [εә] Chair
Neutral eu ee+r [iә] Engineer
They ey [ei] ou+r [auә] Our
Point oi [oi] oo+r [o:] Door
Boy oy

 

 

Cc [s] before e,i,y City, pencil, cycle Th [θ] Thick, thin
[k] Cat, come [∂] This, than
Gg [dз] Gin, gentle, gym wh [h]

before o

Who
[g] Garden, bag [w] When, why
ch [t∫] Chair wr [r] Write
tch Match — ssion  

[∫n]

Mission
sh [∫] She — tion Dictation
qu [kw] Quick — sion [зn] Revision
ng [ŋ] Long — ture [∫ә] Picture
nk [ŋk] Thank

 

1

The Noun

1 Proper nouns (жалқы) Peter, Smith, Teddy, Moscow, the Volga, “New Times”
Common nouns (жалпы) Boy, snow, dog, school, friendship
2 Concrete nouns (деректi) Mary, cat, table, butter, book
Abstract nouns (дерексiз) Love, idea, cold, meeting, summer
3 Animate nouns (жанды) Jane, cat, girl, horse
Inanimate nouns (жансыз) River, table, iron

 

Number

Singular Plural
1 — s Book

Boy

Books

Boys

2 — es Bus

Bush

Speech

Match

Box

Buses

Bushes

Speeches

Matches

Boxes

3 — es Potato

Tomato

Potatoes

Tomatoes

4 — s Photo

Piano

Zero

Rhino

Photos

Pianos

Zeros

Rhinos

5 y → i Army

Strawberry

Armies

Strawberries

6 f → v Leaf

Knife

Leaves

Knives

7 Man

Woman

Child

Foot

Tooth

Goose

Mouse

Sheep

Deer

Men

Women

Children

Feet

Teeth

Geese

Mice

Sheep

Deer

2

 

Word order (сөз тәртiбi)

 

1 2 3 4
Adverbial modifier

Пысықтауыш

Subject

 

Бастауыш

Predicate

 

Баяндауыш

Object

 

Толықтауыш

Adverbial modifier

Пысықтауыш

In summer Peter wrote them letters very often
Анықтауыш (Attribute) өзi анықтайтын сөзден бұрын (предлогсыз) немесе кейiн (предлогпен) келедi

I like your dog.  That dog of yours is very good.

 

 

Сұраулы сөйлем түрлерi

 

Түрi Жасалуы Мысал
 

1

General question

(жалпы)

 

Pr1+Sub.+Pr2?

Does he read English books?
Сan you read English books?
Is he a good people?
 

2

Special question

(арнайы)

 

1

 

Qu.+Pr1+Sub.+Pr2?

Where do you live?
What can you do?
Where is he?
2 Qu.+Pr ?

(Бастауышқа немесе оның анықтауышына)

Who is reading a book?
Whose book is lying on the table?
Alternative

question

(балама)

Gq1+ or+Gq2 Is it a book or a copybook?
Do you go to the cinema or to the theatre?
4 Disjunctive

question

(демеулiктi)

1 Af.st,+Pr1+not+Per.Pr? He is reading, isn’t he?
2 Neg.st,+Pr1+Per.Pr? He has a book, hasn’t he?
 

Pr1 – 1.көмекшi етiстiк                          Af.st – болымды сөйлем

2.модальды етiстiк                        Neg.st – болымсыз сөйлем

3. байланыстырушы етiстiк            Per.Pr – жiктеу есiмдiгi

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Non-finite forms of the verb

 

Infinitive (to _)

Iс-әрекеттi бiлдiретiн қ етiстiктiң түрi

1 Indefinite Infinitive V1 I want to speak to him

I can read this story

2 Passive Infinitive to be+V3 Peter is glad to be invited by me
3 Perfect Infinitive to have+V3 I am glad to have spoken to him
4 Continuous Infinitive to be+V4 It was pleasant to be driving the car again
5 Perfect Continuous Infinitive to have been+V4 They seem to have been reading this book for a long time

 

Gerund

Iс-әрекеттi бiлдiретiн жајқсыз етiстiктiң түрi

1 Indefinite

Gerund

V1+ing Stark sat without speaking
2 Perfect Gerund having+V3 He felt better for having written the letter
3 Passive Gerund being+V3 I like being invited to their house

 

Participle I

Iс-әрекеттi  бiр заттың немесе әрекеттiң сипаты ретiнде көрсететiн жақсыз етiстiктiң түрi

1 Indefinite

Participle I

V4 The street was full of people, laughing and going home
2 Perfect Participle I having+V3 Having read the book I gave it to Peter
3 Passive Participle I being+V3 Cecilia had heard very little being absorbed in her own reflections
4 Perfect Passive Participle I having been+V3 I am going the same day myself having been detained here two days

 

Participle II

 

1 Participle II V3 The boy invited by Peter is a friend of mine

Зат есiмнiң жасалу жолдары

 

I. Префикстер арқылы
1

Dis —

Disbelief 5

Sub —

Subway
2 Mis — Misbehavior 6 Re — Recount
3 Co — Copilot 7 Auto — Autobiography
4 Counter- Counteraction 8 Vice — Vice -president

 

 

II. Суффикстер арқылы
Түбiр зат есiмнен Түбiр сын есiмнен
1 — er Londoner 1 — ness Happiness
2 — ess Actress 2 — ty Property
3 — hood Childhood 3 — dom Freedom
4 — ship Friendship  

Түбiр етiстiктен

5 — (e)ry Chemistry
6 — let Booklet 1 — er(or) Worker, actor
7 — ette Kitchenette 2 — ant(ent) Assistant
8 — ite Muskovite 3 — (a)tion Organization
9 — (i)an Russian 4 — ing Building
10 — ese Chinese 5 — ment Movement
11 — ist Violonist 6 — al Refusal
12 -ism Heroism 7 — ee Addressee

 

 

 

III. Бiрiгу арқылы IV. Конверсия

(сөз табының өзгеруi)

1 Зат е.+зат е. Rainbow 1 to doubt doubt
2 Сын е.+зат е. Blackboard 2 to love love
3 Yстеу+зат е. Afternoon
4 Етiстiк+зат е. Knitwear 1 comic (a) comic
5 Зат е.+етiстiк Handshake 2 Rich (the)rich

 

3

Сын есiмнiң жасалуы

 

I. Префикс арқылы
1

Un —

Unfair 8

Anti —

Antifascist
2 Im — Impossible 9 Inter — International
3 Dis — Dishonest 10 Post — Post-war
4 Super — Supernatural 11 Uni — Unilateral
5 Sub — Subconscious 12 Bi — Bilingual
6 Ultra — Ultra-violet 13 Multi — Multilateral
7 Hyper — Hupercritical 14 Poly — Polysyllabic

 

II.Суффикс арқылы
Түбiр зат есiмнен Түбiр етiстiктен
1 — ful Useful 1 — able Readable
2 — less Helpless 2 — y Sleepy
3 — ly Friendly 3 — ive Attractive
4 — y Creamy
5 — ish Foolish
6 — al Musical
7 — ous Dangerous

 

Бiрiгу арқылы
1 Зат е.+ прич 1 Heart-breaking
2 Сын е.+ прич 1 Good-looking
3 Зат е.+ прич 2 Hand-made
4 Зат е.+ сын е Sea-green

 

Degrees of comparison

 

Positive Comparative Superlative
1 Бiр буынды strong stronger (the) strongest
2 Кей екi буынды сөз easy

clever

narrow

easier

cleverer

narrower

(the) easiest

(the) cleverest

(the) narrowest

3 Көп буынды interesting more interesting (the) most interesting
4 Ерекше жағдай good

bad

little

many (much)

better

worse

less

more

(the) best

(the) worst

(the) least

(the) most

Қолданылуы    As ….as … than the …
He is tall

She is as tall as her brother

He is taller than his sister He is the tallest in the family

4

Passive –тегi етiстiктiң шақтық формаларын да осылай жасап шығуға болады.

Ескерту: Passive –те Continuous тобында Future\Future – in the Past жоқ. Ал, Perfect Continuous тобы мүлде болмайды

 

Passive Voice  be+V3
Indefinite

( — )

Continuous

(be + V4)

Perfect

(have+V3)

Present

(V1)

be invited be being invited have   been invited
Past

(V2)

was\were invited was\were being invited had   been invited
Future

(shall\will+

V1)

shall\will

be invited  

shall\will  have   been invited
Future – in the Past

(should\

would+V1)

should\would

be invited

should\would have   been invited

 

Past    Continuous     Passive

 

 

V2             be + V4            be+V3         бұдан   be2 +be4 +V3

 

Яғни            was\were being invited

 

 

“To be”, “to have” етiстiктерiнiң осы шақта жiктелуi
Pronouns “to be” “to have”
Singular 1 person I аm have
2 person You аre have
3 person

 

He

She

It

 

іs

 

has

Plural 1 person We аre have
2 person You аre have
3 person

 

They аre have

 

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The finite forms of the verb

 

Active Voice
Indefinite

( — )

Continuous

(be + V4)

Perfect

(have+V3)

Perfect Continuous

(have been+V4)

Present

(V1)

invite be inviting have invited have   been inviting
Past

(V2)

invited was\were inviting had invited had   been inviting
Future

(shall\will+

V1)

shall\will

invite

shall\will

be inviting

shall\will

have invited

shall\will   have   been inviting
Future – in the Past

(should\

would+V1)

should\

would

invite

should\

would

be inviting

should\

would

have invited

should\

would

have   been inviting

 

Етiстiктiң шақтық формалары белгiлi бiр қағидаға сүйенiп жасалады.

V1     —    V2      —   V3       —     V4

to invite  — invited – invited – inviting

 

Past      Perfect

 

V2             have+V   бұдан     have2+ V3 ,   яғни    had invited

 

 

 

Future        Perfect       Continuous

shall\will+V1     have+V3               be + V4       бұдан   

 

shall\will   have   been inviting    

         

Ескерту: көмекшi етiстiк алдыңғы етiстiктiң формасына ауысады, ал соңғы етiстiк сөйлемдегi толық мағыналы негiзгi етiстiк

8

The Pronouns

Personal Pronoun Possessive Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
Nominative case Objective case Main form Absolute form
Singular 1 Per I me my mine myself
2 Per you you your yours yourself
3 Per he

she

it

him

her

it

his

her

its

his

hers

its

himself

herself

itself

Plural 1 Per we

 

us our ours ourselves
2 Per you

 

you your yours yourselves
3 Per they

 

them their theirs themselves
Қолдануы Атау септiгiнде Басқа септiк-терде Зат есiмнен
Бұрын Кейiн
Мысалы I wrote him a letter

We met them at the theatre

This is my book

and this  is yours

He washed himself

 

Indefinite and negative pronouns
1 Some, somebody, someone, something … used in the affirmative sentences I have some English books
2 Any, anybody, anyone, anything … used in the interrogative and negative (…not) sentences Have you any English books?

I don’t have any English books

3 No, nobody, no one, nothing … used in the negative sentences I have no English books

 

Demonstrative pronouns
Singular Plural
1 This These
2 That Those
I have this book and you have that one These shoes don’t fit. Show me those ones

5

 

The numeral

 

Cardinal

numerals

(есептiк)

 

Ordinal numerals

(реттiк)

1-12 1-3
1 one the    first
2 two the    second
3 three the    third
4 four  

 

— th

жалға-

нады

the  fourth
12 twelve the  twelfth
13-19
13 — teen

жалға

нады

thirteen the thirteenth
14 fourteen the fourteenth
19 nineteen the nineteenth
20, 30,….90  

Y→ie

20 — ty

жалға-

нады

twenty the twentieth
30 thirty the thirtieth
90 ninety the ninetieth
21 twenty-one the twenty-first
22 twenty-two the twenty-second
  1. 100 – a hundred 1000 – a thousand

615 – six hundred and fifteen

2006 – two thousand and six

5700 – five thousand , seven hundred

2753000 – two million , seven hundred and fifty three

thousand

  1. 8.56 – eight point fifty-six

 

III. 2\7 – two sevenths

 

  1. In 17 87 — in seventeen eighty-nine

In 19 00 – in  nineteen hundred

Жылды оқығанда екi саннан бөлiп оқиды

6

Етiстiктiң түрлерi

 

Түрi Етiстiк Мысал Қолданылуы
1 Негiзгi speak

take

Mary speaks English

I took the book from the library yesterday

 

Cөйлемдегi негiзгi әрекеттi бiлдiредi
2 Көмекшi do

 

 

be

have

shall

will

Do you speak English?

He doesn’t speak Russian

I am speaking

She has spoken

I shall go there

He will have asked

Болымсыз сөйлем

сұраулы сөйлем,

шақтық формаларды жасауға көмектеседi

3 Байланыс-тырушы be Peter is a good people
4 Модальды can\could

may\might

 

 

 

must

 

should

ought to

She can read

May I open the window?

He may come back tomorrow

You must come to school on time

You should (ought to) be more polite to him

You should (ought to) have tidied up your room

Мүмкiндiк

Рұқсат

 

Болжам

 

Мiндет

 

Ақыл-кеңес

 

Ескерту

 

бiлдiредi

 

Етiстiктiң формалары

 

Infinitive

V1

Past Indefinite

V2

Participle II

V3

Participle I

V4

Regular

(дұрыс)

— ed жалғанады -ing жалғанады
(to) ask ask-ed ask-ed ask-ing
(to) answer answer-ed answer-ed answer-ing
Irregular

(бұрыс)

арнайы кестеде берiледi -ing жалғанады
(to) be was\were been be-ing
(to) write wrote written writ-ing
(to) speak spoke spoken speak-ing
(to) read read read read-ing

7