Балпейсова Гулбагида Амангельдиевна
Батыс Қазақстан облысы
Бұлдырты жалпы білім беретін орта мектебі
Theme: Work with the text at the English lessons
Work with the text is presented as the most important thing in organizing language sphere. Giving information through the text is the main and basic motivation in learning foreign languages in secondary schools. The first texts are appeared after learning some lexical words and phrases. It is clear that from this time we can speak about the early learning of language.
Texts are necessary for teaching reading rules. They contain 5-6 sentences in the form of letter and include the set of learned lexical units and speech patterns. Such texts as “About myself”, “My mother”, “My family” including familiar words and phrases develop pupils’ thinking abilities; help them realize connection between the images and categories of thinking and life experience. Reading skills of the pupils transfer to the new qualified degrees – making sense of the reading material, comparing, describing.
In the early learning of language texts are based on the words and phrases of the current theme and pupils of this degree study to activate them in understanding, using them in their own sentences, monologues, dialogues. According to the given texts they speak of themselves, their relatives, pets and animals. Before reading the text the teacher should work with the pronunciation of some words, intonation of some speech patterns and introduce with their transcriptions as every text has 3-10 % of new vocabulary. Sometimes it is useful to translate the text in chorus or to ask one pupil to do it and others to help.
In this degree the main attention should be paid to the phonetic work. After reading the text 3-4 times, lexical, grammar usages of the sentences are checked by these tasks:
- Find the words concerning the text.
- Choose the sentences from the text suitable to the pictures.
- Is this sentence right or wrong?
- I’ll read the first part of the sentence you find the second part of it.
- Find the missing word (noun, verb, adjective) in the sentence.
- Answer “yes”, “no” questions.
It is quite well sometimes to give the text to learn by heart, particularly for the weak pupils.
In the middle grade the texts are differed with their informative aspects. They help pupils not only for recall the familiar things but also to learn new materials, to get useful information. Such texts as “the USA”, “Kazakhstan”, “Great Britain”, “Environment” are appeared in this degree. It comes up for the pupils to give the task to find the key information in the text, because it is not necessary to translate the text. Before the work with the text I usually take brainstorming tasks. They are:
Association, semantic map, tables for completing, Etc.
If the text is very long I usually divide them into patterns and the kinds of work also may be very different. First of all I check if the text is clear for all of the pupils. For that I choose 5-6 complex sentences, and ask the meanings of these sentences. After that I give the text with the mixed sentences, the pupils put them in order. The next types of the work are:
- Find wrong sentences and correct them
- Answer the questions (If the work-group is weak you may begin with the general questions gradually you may put alternative questions, at last special questions)
- Put questions to the text and ask your neighbour to answer them
- Give the main idea of the first (second, third, Etc.) passage.
- Give synonyms (antonyms) of the words
- Find the word according to the definition
- Match the words and phrases
- Complete the sentences
- Choose the sentences with the modal verb ” may”(must, can, should)
- Write the sentences in the Present Simple Tense (Past, Future, Etc.)
In the upper grade we can add one more type of work, it is retelling. This type of work starts earlier but in another way, but at the 9th form it demands more detailed work.
he different types of the work prepare the children for retelling of the text. We can not make the pupils to retell the text at once. At the beginning the children may learn by heart the text, but after being interested in the text they may understand the text and retell with their own words. It demands attention, patience, responsibility and understanding. It is better to begin this work:
- Put the words in order and make sentences
- Try to give the meaning of the passage in one sentence
- Make support concept of the text
- Write your plan for the text
- To give own opinion about the place, hero, Etc.
One more kind of work in this part is work with the dialogue. Dialogue is an integral part of any work of art. Because they are taken from different literature. We can see it if we read any literature in the original. But there are many differences in retelling the text and the dialogue. The sequence of tenses, reported speech is the main grammar rules there. Pupil may speak as the first person but after studying those grammar rules it will be gross error. But retelling the text helps pupils to develop their skills to give their own opinions, to speak correctly, to develop memory and imagination.
As the conclusion I want to say that work with the text includes all the possibilities for learning the language: For learning the vocabulary, for understanding grammar, for speaking fluently keeping pronunciation intonation, for widening knowledge and outlook